It can be believed that nanobots could be injected or in any other case inserted inside the human physique, and substitute sure elements, maintaining humans healthy for an incredibly long period of time, or combating organ failure to a level. The notion of applicable technology was developed within the 20th century by thinkers such as E.F. Schumacher and Jacques Ellul to describe situations the place it was not desirable to make use of very new technologies or people who required entry to some centralized infrastructure or parts or abilities imported from elsewhere. Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and worry the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they assist. Estimates for the date of this Singularity differ, however prominent futurist Ray Kurzweil estimates the Singularity will occur in 2045. Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies similar to transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological improvement as generally having beneficial results for the society and the human situation. Innovations continued through the Middle Ages with improvements such as silk-manufacture , the horse collar and horseshoes in the first few hundred years after the 5th-century fall of the Roman Empire.
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